There are many types of sport injuries
· Knee injuries ( Torn ACL, Torn MCL)
· Shin splints
· Swollen muscles
· Stress Fractures
· Achilles tendon rupture
· Rotator cuff injury
· Runners knee
· Plantar Fasciitis
· Tennis Elbow
Below is a simplified version on how one can differentiate if it is acute or overuse sports injuries.
Courtesy-Clinical sports medicine by Peter Brukner and Karim Khan
Here we are going to discuss how we can prevent sports injuries. There are few important factors one must consider.
· Warm up
· Taping and bracing
· Protective and suitable equipment
· Playing surface
Warm –up prepares our body for exercise. It has many benefits like increase in blood flow ,decrease number of sports injuries due to increase in range of motion, decrease stiffness of connective tissues with increased contraction and relaxation.
Stretching can be static or ballistic.
In static stretching, the stretch position is assumed slowly and held for 30 seconds.
Ballistic stretching, the muscle is stretched near to its limit, then stretched further with a bouncing movement which causes a reflex muscle contraction.
Taping and bracing:
These are used to restrict undesired motion or allow the desired motions.
Eg: taping of ankle joint
Protective and suitable equipment:
These includes helmets, guards, knee braces
Also proper shoes like running spikes, ski boots ,football shoes or proper tennis racket or badminton racket.
For eg: a football shoe should be of adequate depth ,have a rigid heel counter and forefoot flexibility ,wide sole and cleats should be placed to allow forefoot flexibility.
Training and playing surface should be similar to prevent sports injuries
Training should be specific to individual
Inadequate nutrition increases the chances of sports injuries.
With all these principles of prevention of sports injuries one can prevent them.
Taking all these prevention, sometimes a player does suffer from sports injuries due to some physical factors like body biomechanics or external factors hit my another player or wet playing surface etc.
I will give you a brief about one of the most common sports injuries- ACL injury
ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) occurs in football players, gymnasts or athletes. It majorly occurs due to a pivot motion of the knee due to external force .
Patient will complain of some pain after an immediate injury and also some giving away feel in the knee. After a few investigations like x-ray and MRI of knee, depending on the grade of injury , further treatment is decided.
Grade 1 -25% or fewer fibers are disrupted.
Grade 2- >25% to 50 % fibers are disrupted
Grade 3- 75% fibers are disrupted or a complete tear
Depending on the grade of injury, your orthopedic will suggest you the line of treatment.
In grade 1 tear, initially rest in advised with some compression bandage or knee brace and medications. After a few weeks, physical therapy is advised
In grade 2 tear, similar treatment is given as grade 1 , but if the ACL tear is accompanied with some other injuries to knee like meniscal or MCL injury, surgery may be advised
In grade 3 tear. Surgery is advised
What to expect in surgery?
Knee arthroscopy is done which is a minimal invasive procedure. After the procedure, generally rest is advised on the day of operation. From next day, your physical therapist will visit you for some knee exercises and also help you move out of the bed. Here in RNH hospital, knee movement of around 30 degree is advised for week 1 post op , gradually increasing it 30 degree every week. Patient moves out of the bed with a help of a walker without putting any weight on the operated leg. In gradual follow ups with the orthopedic, further line of treatment is advised.